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Intel Celeron Processor

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Intel Celeron family is a line of budget x86 processors based on Pentium designs. Originally based on intel prenium II architecture, the Celeron processors migrated over time to Pentium III, NetBurst (Pentium 4) and Core architectures. Priced lower than their Pentium counterparts, the Celeron processors have certain high-end processor features disabled. For example, P6-based Celerons had multiprocessing disabled, while more modern CPUs may have disabled Hyper-Threading, Virtualization, AES instructions, and/or other features. The Celerons are slower than similar-clocked Pentiums due to smaller size of L2 cache, and possibly slower bus speed. Celeron CPUs are usually packaged the same way as Pentium or Core-branded processors, and can be used in motherboards designed for Pentium/Core microprocessors. For more information about the differences between Celeron and Pentium CPUs please see Celeron Vs Pentium page.

Distinguishing between different generations of Celeron desktop processors is easy because they used different package types. Celerons based on Pentium II core were packaged either in Slot 1 or plastic PPGA package. Intel Celeron chips, based on Pentium III core, were manufactured in FC-PGA package. NetBurst generation of Celeron microprocessors were packaged in 478-pin package with integrated heatsink. Core-based Celerons were produced in 775-land LGA (pinless) package, compatible with socket 775.

In addition to Celeron processors, there were a few Intel families that used “Celeron” brand name as part of the name. These were:

  • Celeron D – a line of desktop budget CPUs built on NetBurst micro-architecture.
  • Celeron M- a group of families of single-core mobile microprocessors.
  • Celeron Dual Core – a family of budget dual-core CPUs, that spanned a few different micro-architectures. This family was eventually re-branded as “Celeron”.
  • Mobile  Celeron Dual Core  – a line of mobile dual-core microprocessors for value market. The family is branded now as “Mobile Celeron”.

VIA C7 Processor Specifications

VIA C7 Processor Block Diagram

The VIA C7® processor delivers great performance in a cool, native x86 package, ideal for the new wave of ultra compact, quiet running systems that blend into our environment at home, at work and on the road, while the VIA PadLock Security Engine offers greater peace of mind with security built directly onto the processor die.

VIA C7 Processor
Features Benefits
CPU clock speeds up to 2.0GHz Superior performance for mainstream digital media and productivity applications
Full x86 Operating System & software application compatibility Leverages the richest and most cost-effective software development platforms, including Microsoft® Windows®, Linux and Open BSD
VIA StepAhead™ Technology Suite
VIA V4 Bus up to 800MHz FSB High bandwidth connection to system core logic for optimum performance to memory and peripheral devices
16 pipeline stages Faster processor speed and efficiency
VIA TwinTurbo™ Technology Enables processor to switch from low power mode to full performance extremely quickly for smoother operation
Efficiency enhanced 128KB full-speed exclusive L2 cache with 32-way associativity Greater memory optimization for enhanced digital media streaming and overall performance
Sophisticated branch prediction mechanism Intuitive processing capability for better system operation
MMX, SSE, SSE2 & SSE3 instruction sets Enhanced 3D and multimedia performance
Full-speed FPU Additional processing power for 3D graphics, multimedia, and streaming functions
IO/APIC support Greatly reduces interrupt latency
VIA CoolStream™ Architecture
90nm SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) process technology State-of-the-art 90nm SOI manufacturing process enables VIA C7 processor to operate up to 15% faster while using 20% less power
World’s smallest x86 processor die (30mm2) Enables a new generation of small form factor designs and new, smaller applications for the x86 platform
Compact VIA nanoBGA2 package (21mm x 21mm) Excellent thermal characteristics and compact package for greater system design innovation
VIA PadLock™ Security Engine
AES Encryption World’s fastest x86 security engine for unbreakable encryption of up to 25 GB/s (over 160 times faster than current hard drive speeds)
Secure Hash SHA-1 and SHA-256 Hashes messages using SHA-1 and SHA-256 algorithms at a rate of 20 GB/s for message authentication, providing evidence if message is tampered or altered
Montgomery Multiplier Provides hardware acceleration of encryption and decryption for public key algorithms such as RSA, reducing processor load
Two Quantum-based Random Number Generators Provides an unshakable foundation for security, generating truly random numbers at a rate of 20 million random bits per second
NX Execute Protection Prevents worms attaching to programs and executing

100 Police, DSS Officers Missing In Nasarawa

Remains of the slain Police officers being deposited at Dalhatu Specialist Hospital Morgue in Lafia, Nasarawa State, yesterday.   image: NAN.

Remains of the slain Police officers being deposited at Dalhatu Specialist Hospital Morgue in Lafia, Nasarawa State, yesterday.
image: NAN.

Only 17 out of the 90 Police officers, excluding other security officers, who were on a mission to arrest the chief priest of Ombatse Shrine, located at Assakyo village, about 10 kilometres from Lafia, Nasarawa State has returned so far, and not even in one piece, as they sustained various degrees of injuries, the State Police Command has disclosed.

Ombatse in Eggon language literally means “time has come”.

40 dead bodies of the missing policemen had been recovered from the forests.

Meanwhile, the House of Representatives, Arewa Consultative Forum, ACF, and the Benue State Governor, Gabriel Suswam have condemned the killing of the policemen and officials of the Department of State Security, DSS, saying the action was not only unacceptable but also “revolting.”

Reacting to the killings, the Inspector General of Police, IGP, Mohammed Abubakar yesterday said that the killing with impunity of officers and other members of the rank and file of the force in parts of the country, had reached intolerable stage. He boasted that the reign of terror would be brought to an end henceforth.

Abubakar who spoke through the Police Public Relations Officer, Frank Mbah in Abuja said, “We must put an end to this endless circle of impunity. Enough is enough.”

He therefore ordered policemen throughout the country to wear black arm bands for a period of one week in honour of their colleagues killed in recent days in Bayelsa, Borno and Nasarawa states, and in other places they might have been killed.

The Department of State Security, DSS, also said it had deployed a search and rescue team to determine the number of its officers involved.

US Nabs Cyber-Criminals For Thousands Of Thefts From ATMs In 26 Countries

creditcards

US federal prosecutors in the state of New York say cyber-criminals stole $45m (about N7bn), by hacking their way into a database of prepaid debit cards.

Seven people were arrested in the case, which involved thousands of thefts from ATMs in 26 countries, authorities announced on Thursday.

Prosecutors say an eighth person involved in the crime was murdered in the Dominican Republic late last month.

The US attorney in Brooklyn, Loretta Lynch called the cyber-theft “a massive 21st-century bank heist”.

According to her, the New York cell of the global theft operation withdrew $2.8m (440m) in cash from hacked accounts in less than a day.

How gunmen kidnapped Monguno

Shettima Ali Monguno

. Abductors demand ransom – Son

The gunmen who kidnapped Shettima Ali Monguno at the Mafoni Juma’at mosque in Maiduguri fired several gunshots into the air to disperse the people before fleeing with the 92-year-old elder statesman, witnesses said.
Though no group has claimed responsibility for the kidnapping, many are blaming it on the Jama’atu Ahlis Sunnah Lidda’awati Wal Jihad, also known as Boko Haram, whose members have been enmeshed in series of kidnappings in the last few months.
Worshippers at the Mafoni Mosque, which is situated in the heart of Maiduguri metropolis, said Monguno, who once lived in the area,  has been  patronizing the mosque for decades and the abductors had carefully perfected their plan and executed it without resistance.
Despite the high concentration of Boko Haram insurgents in Mafoni, the elder statesman has maintained close contacts with his extended family members, friends, neighbours and acquaintances, who are still living there.
Weekly Trust gathered that Monguno was kidnapped minutes before 2pm, shortly after the Friday congregational prayers, by a four -man gang which whisked him into a waiting vehicle and disappeared.
A witness said the Friday congregation, with large concentration of old women and children, burst into tears when the elder statesman was seized from the hands of some people who were helping him to get to his private car.
Monguno has been an advocate of peaceful resolution to the Boko Haram crisis. “(He) referred to the insurgents as Yaana (i.e. sons of Borno), and has been appealing to them to stop violence and champion their course through peaceful means,” said one of the sources.
Demand for ransom
“The abductors got in touch and they put my father through on the phone, he spoke to us and said that he was fine. They made a ransom demand,” the ex-minister’s son, Abubakar Ali Monguno told AFP, declining to give a figure.
Weekly Trust also heard from other sources close to the family and government that the kidnappers have demanded for “huge ransom” but did not say the exact amount.
“The family is in contact with the abductors…they wanted large sum of money but our major concern is the safety of the old man who is extremely frail because of old age,” the source said.
Spokesman of the Borno Elders Forum, Dr Bulama Mali Gubio last night told Weekly Trust that elder statesman Shettima Ali Monguno was not released as at 10.45pm, but there is optimism that the abductors will let the old man go.
“We believe he (Monguno) will be released soon. Communication has been established and the old man has spoken with his wife and son. He is in stable condition, though it is a fact that going by his age, he must be traumatized by the abduction,” Gubio said.
Mafoni is one of the red spots in Maiduguri where fightings had ensued severally between operatives of the Joint Task Force (JTF) and suspected members of Boko Haram that led to the killing of many people and burning of houses and business outlets.
At a time, the whole settlement was deserted. Even now, many residents had refused to return to their houses. But Monguno continues to go to the mosque every Friday to interact with hundreds of children and adults, some of whom named after him.
The elder statesman now lives in a dwarf fenced twin duplex house, guarded by local aged guardsmen in the GRA close to the Government House. He has no formal security and attends public and private functions with only his driver and one of his private aides.
Shettima deeply touched
Meanwhile, Governor Kashim Shettima yesterday expressed shock and dismay over the abduction of Monguno, whom he said has dedicated the whole of his life to humanity.
The governor, who visited the house of the elder statesman, held meetings with security chiefs, members of the Borno Elders Forum (BEF) and family members of the old man.
Sources at the Government House said Shettima has also reached out to the Presidency.
The governor, who spoke to newsmen at the house of Monguno before the commencement of his meeting with key stakeholders, said he was very optimistic that by Allah’s will, the elder will regain his freedom.
At the meeting, Weekly Trust learnt, Shettima wondered why the 92-year-old man who has dedicated his life to helping orphans, widows, vulnerable children in the society; offering scholarships, building schools, feeding the poor and even advocating for peaceful negotiation and amnesty for members of the Boko Haram could be abducted in a broad day light.
“I strongly believe that the age and the unmatchable philanthropic disposition of this man (Monguno) should serve as immunity for him against the excesses of everybody,” Shettima reportedly said during a meeting and prayer session with Monguno’s family members.
Credible government sources also said Shettima is making various contacts to ensure the release of Monguno without jeopardizing the old man’s safety.
Members of the Borno Elders Forum (BEF) also met with Governor Kashim Shettima as well as security chiefs in the state over the abduction Dr. Shettima Ali Monguno in Maiduguri yesterday.
Ambassador Gaji Galtimari, who once headed the Presidential Committee on Insecurity in the North East, confirmed to journalists that Monguno has been kidnapped before the meeting commenced. He, however, declined to speak further.
Weekly Trust reports that operatives of the JTF have already taken over the residence of the elder statesman at the GRA, making it difficult for sympathizers to have access to the once “free entry and exit” house.
Journalists saw soldiers, policemen, SSS and other security operatives in and outside the house. Before now, it is very common to see old women and students trooping to Monguno’s house for various reasons.
From bombing to kidnapping
The JTF was yet to issue any statement on the kidnapping of Monguno as at press time, but last week, it warned that the Boko Haram has perfected plans on kidnapping notable figures to augment their purse.
A statement by JTF’s spokesman, Lieutenant Colonel Sagir Musa, reads in part: “Security measures adopted by the JTF make it difficult or impossible for Boko Haram terrorists and other criminals to conduct successful bank robbery operations in Borno State.
“Consequently, intelligence available to the Task Force has indicated that Boko Haram terrorists had resolved to concentrate more on kidnappings than robbery. They alleged that kidnapping is more lucrative, less dangerous and requires short time to plan and execute. Similarly, a special kidnapping squad has been earmarked and tasked by Boko Haram sect to kidnap persons who could be wealthy relation, politicians, businessman/woman, traditional ruler, senior civil servants and foreigners alike.
“The Task Force wishes to alert members of the public of this trend, urge all to be wary and continue to be security conscious at all times. The public are advised to avoid or be very sensitive to strangers and friends that have not been in contact for long. Additionally, members of the public are also warned to avoid isolated areas and shun meetings or friendship organized through telephones or social media,” the statement said.
A week ago, the General Manager of Borno Water Board Alhaji Baba Gujbawu was kidnapped at his Maiduguri residence at gunpoint and bundled into a waiting vehicle by a four man gang who took him to unknown destination.
Cases of kidnappings are now rampant in Maiduguri and environs. In February, this year a university lecturer, Dr. Abba Kagu, was kidnapped. Just last week, Boko Haram was paid more than $3m (about N500m) before releasing seven members of a French family, according to a confidential report seen by Reuters news agency. The report did not say who paid the money and both France and Cameroon denied paying a ransom.
‘Fearless and sincere’
Born in 1926, Monguno had his education in Nigeria and abroad. He was a member of the Nigerian Parliament in 1959; education secretary and councilor for education, works and social welfare in Maiduguri between 1959 and 1965. Monguno was Federal minister for Air Force and internal affair 1965-66; federal commissioner for trade and industries 1967-71  and minister mines and power, petroleum and energy 1972-75. He once held the rotating presidency of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1972.
Monguno, a fearless and outspoken individual, who comments on virtually every national issue, is the chairman of the Borno Elders Forum (BEF) and meetings are mostly held at his residence. During the recent visit of President Goodluck Jonathan to Maiduguri over the protracted Boko Haram crisis, Monguno, who many say is as fearless as he is sincere in his words, faulted the president who said the insurgents are faceless and deserve no amnesty and insisted on dialogue with members of the sect.
“To be frank, Mr. President, but for dialogue, you wouldn’t have become the President of this country today. Our founding fathers who got together and begged the British government to hand over the reins of government had to sit together and forget their differences and agreed that if given, we will live together in harmony, we will respect each other.
“Mr. President, sometimes we wonder whether you are running a military government, a democracy or something called diarchy. We can hardly put our finger on what type of government you are running, Mr. President. We hope the labours of our heroes past shall not be in vain.
“Mr. President, I should advise you to relate more with the governments of northern Nigeria…I have a feeling that there is something like misunderstanding between you Mr. President who has the responsibility of running the entire country and the governors of 19 northern states. We have told them too to always be together,” Monguno

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